دانش پزشکی

پزشکی و اجتماعی

 
ساعت ٢:٠٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٤/٢٤  کلمات کلیدی: عفونت ناخن ، ناخن فرورونده ، تخریب ناخن ، دردناخن


Nail ingrowing

 

 

علل ایجاد ناخن فرورونده ,  (ناخن توی گوشت فرو رفته) 

 

در انتهای انگشتان دست و پا، سلول‌های خاصی وجود دارند که بستر ناخن نامیده می‌شود.

این ماتریکس ناخن که در انتهای خود یا به اصطلاح ریشه ناخن به بافت انگشت متصل

 هستند،  در سراسر بستر خود یک لایه شاخی ترشحمی‌کنند.این همان چیزی است که اغلب

 مردم آن را  به عنوان ناخن می‌شناسند. . رشد سلول‌ها از ریشه ناخن و تغییرات آنها به

 بافت شاخی،  باعث رشد ناخن می‌شود و به تدریج و با مردن بافت، لبه آزاد بدنه ناخن از

 نوک انگشتان جلوتر می‌آید

اونیکوکریتپوزیس یا بیماری ناخن فرورونده در گوشت، یک بیماری شایع مربوط به ناخن‌هاست

 که باعث ایجاد یک شرایط دردناک و غیرطبیعی در انگشت مشکل‌دار می‌شود. ناخن فرورونده

 زمانی به‌وجود می‌آید که لبه‌های ناخن (یک طرف یا هر دو طرف) در بافت نرم کنار بستر

 رشد ناخن فرو بروند و در داخل آن رشد کنند.این فرورفتن و بریدن بافت اطراف ناخن باعث

 ایجاد  یک درد شدید و به‌وجود آمدن بستر عفونت می‌شود. ناخن فرورونده می‌تواند هم در دست

 و هم در پا اتفاق بیفتد اما به‌طور شایع، بیشتر انگشتان پا و بخصوص انگشت شست پا گرفتار

 می‌شود

علل :

1ـ نگهداری نامناسب: مراقبت نامناسب انگشتان و ناخن‌ها زمینه فرورفتن ناخن را در بافت اطرافش

 به‌وجود می‌آورد. ، گرد کردن گوشه‌های ناخن به جای کوتاه کردن ناخن و گرفتن آن از نزدیک بستر

 ناخن کندن ناخن با دست به جای استفاده از قیچی مخصوص یا ناخن‌گیر.

2. استفاده از کفش‌های تنگ، دارای پنجه کوتاه، کفش‌های باریک، کفش‌هایی با شماره کوچک‌تر

3. آسیب به ناخن‌ها: هر نوع فشارو ضربه به انگشتان و ناخن‌ها می‌تواند باعث فرورفتن ناخن به

 داخل گوشت شود.

4. مشکلات ناخن و انگشتان اصلی‌ترین علت به‌وجود آمدن ناخن فرورونده مشکلات ساختاری

 خود ناخن است

علائم : 

فرو رفتن ناخن در بافت کناری باعث تغییر رنگ آن و تا حدودی تیره‌ترشدن می شود

درد اصلی‌ترین و آزارنده‌ترین علامت ناخن فرو رونده است

بعد از مدتی می‌تواندبه  عنوان یک جسم خارجی زمینه را برای عفونت و التهاب ناشی از آن هم آماده کند 

قرمزی، تورم و گرمی و ترشح چرکی، ترشح مایع سفیدرنگ و آبکی از ناخن و همچنین ترشحات خون‌آلود

 هم از دیگر علائم این بیماری است

پیشگیری : 

برای پیشگیری از ابتلا به این بیماری اجتناب از عوامل زمینه‌ساز است. . مراقبت صحیح از ناخن‌ها،

 مراجعه به یک پزشک و استفاده از کفشهای مناسب و مراقبت و بررسی مرتب پاها

 بعد از راه رفتن‌های طولانی، استفاده از ناخن‌گیرهای مناسب و متناسب با اندازه ناخن‌ها جلوگیری

از کلفت شدن ناخن‌ها با گرفتن به موقع آنها و رعایت موارد بهداشتی پا در موقع گرفتن ناخن از روش

‌های اصلی پیشگیری است

گرفتن صحیح ناخن‌ها نکته اصلی پیشگیری است آنها را خیلی نزدیک به بستر ناخن نبرید و خیلی کوتاه

 نکنید. گوشه‌ها را تیز یا کوتاه نکنید هیچ وقت کناره‌های ناخن را برندارید. آنها را به هیچ‌وجه ب

ا دست نکنید. گوشت کناره ناخن را زخم نکنید .

درمان:

در مراحل اولیه بیماری می‌توان آن را به وسیله درمان‌های خانگی کنترل کرد. توصیه می‌شود

 در صورتی که ناخن فرو رفته شرایط حادی ندارد روزانه پا را در آب ولرم و بتادین خیس داده

تا ناخن خیس خورده بتواند از درون گوشت بیرون بیاید و بافت ملتهب کنار آن هم بهبود پیدا کند.

 در موارد معمولی این روش تا حدودی جواب می‌دهد. برای جلوگیری از عفونت هم باید از یک

 ماده ضدعفونی‌ معمولی مثل بتادین استفاده کرد و محیط کفش و اطراف ناخن را همیشه پاکیزه

 نگه داشت در صورت حاد شدن ناخن فرورونده و یا سوار شدن عفونت شدید روی آن به

هیچ وجه این درمان‌های خانگی موثر نیستند و باید به یک پزشک مراجعه کرد.درمان موارد حاد

 ناخن فرورونده احتیاج به یک جراحی سرپایی دارد. استفاده از فنل یا کوتر و تخریب بستر ناخن

 در گوشه‌ای که فرورفته است خلاصه روش درمان است. برای این کار بعد از تزریق ماده

بی‌حسی در کنار بافت و در زیرناخن  به آرامی گوشه ناخن بالا آورده و قطع می شود سپس

بستر ناخن در محل مبتلا به وسیله فنل یا کوتر تخریب می شود . یک دوره کوتاه آنتی بیوتیک

 و مسکن هم نیاز است.

 


 
ساعت ٩:۱٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٤/٢٢  کلمات کلیدی:


هگل: اگر بردگان بفهمند که می توانند برده نباشند

 هرگز برده ای دیگر وجود نخواهد داشت


 
ساعت ۸:٤۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٤/۱٧  کلمات کلیدی: stds ، chlamydia ، gonorrhea ، syphilis

STDs

Sometimes it's difficult to see your child as anything but that: a child. Yet, in many ways, teens today are growing up faster than ever. They learn about violence and sex through the media and their peers, but they rarely have all the facts. That's why it's so important for you to talk to your child about sex, particularly sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

Teens are one of the groups most at risk for contracting STDs. You can help your child stay safe just by talking to him or her and sharing some important information about STDs and prevention. Before you tackle this sensitive subject, however, it's important to make sure you not only know what to say, but how and when to say it.

Timing Is Everything

It's never too late to talk to your child about STDs, even if he or she is already a teen. After all, a late talk is better than no talk at all. But the best time to start having these discussions is some time during the preteen or middle school years.

Of course, the exact age varies from child to child: Some kids are more aware of sex at age 9 than others are at age 11. You'll need to read your child's cues - when he or she starts having questions about sex, it's a good time to talk about STDs.

Questions are a good starting point for a discussion. When kids are curious, they're more open to hearing what their parents have to say. Another way to initiate a discussion is to use a media cue, like a TV program or an article in the paper, and ask your child what he or she thinks about it.

The surest way to have a healthy dialogue with your child is to establish lines of communication early on. If parents aren't open to talking about sex or other personal subjects when their kids are young, kids will be a lot less likely to seek Mom and Dad out when they're older and have questions.

Spend time talking with your child from the beginning and it'll be much easier later to broach topics like sex because he or she will feel more comfortable sharing thoughts with you.

Tips for Talking

Here are some things you can do that might make talking about STDs a little easier for both you and your child:

  • Be informed. STDs can be a frightening and confusing subject, so it may help if you read up on STD transmission and prevention. You don't want to add any misinformation, and being familiar with the topic will make you feel more comfortable.
  • Ask your child what he or she already knows about STDs and what else your child would like to learn. Remember, though: Your child may already know a lot more than you realize, although much of that information could be incorrect. Parents need to provide accurate information so their kids can make the right decisions and protect themselves.
  • Ask what your child or teen thinks about sexual scenarios on TV and in movies and use those fictional situations as a lead into talking about safe sex and risky behavior.
  • Encourage your child to raise any fears or concerns he or she might have.
  • Make your child feel that he or she is in charge of this talk, not you, by getting his or her opinion on whatever you discuss. If you let your child's questions lead the way, you'll have a much more productive talk than if you have a particular agenda.
  • Explain that the only sure way to remain STD-free is to not have sex or intimate contact with anyone outside of a committed, monogamous relationship, such as marriage. However, everyone who's having sex should always use a latex condom, preferably with a spermicidal foam, cream, or jelly that contains nonoxynol-9. Although nonoxynol-9 has been shown to reduce the risk of contracting gonorrhea and chlamydia, be aware that it does not protect against infection from other STDs or the virus that causes HIV/AIDS.

Common Questions About STDs

Depending on what your child or teen has heard from friends or the media, his or her questions will probably be fairly straightforward and may include inquiries such as:

  • What are STDS? (An STD is a sexually transmitted disease.)
  • How does someone catch one? (These infections and diseases are spread from one individual to another during anal, oral, or vaginal sex.)
  • What do STDs do to a person's body? (The type of STD determines what kinds of symptoms, if any, a person has. Some STDs - like chlamydia - cause virtually no symptoms, whereas others - like gonorrhea - can cause the person to have discharge from the vagina or penis. If it goes untreated, syphilis causes many different symptoms that can ultimately lead to damage to the internal organs. HPV is an STD that can cause warts in the genital area and can lead to cervical, anal, and penile cancer.)
  • Are STDs curable or do you have them forever? (Both chlamydia and gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics, but there are infections - like herpes or HIV - that have no cure.)
  • Are people who catch STDs somehow bad? (Anyone who has sex, which includes oral and anal sex, can get a sexually transmitted disease. But getting an STD does not mean that someone is a bad person.)
  • Can you tell that someone has an STD just by looking at him or her? (People can become infected the first time that they have unprotected sex and those they're being intimate with may not even know that they're infected themselves. Although there may be visible signs around the genitals of some people with certain kinds of STDS, like genital warts and herpes, most of the time, there is no way to look at someone fully dressed and know that he or she has an STD.)

Answering any of these questions or others as openly as possible is the best approach. It's up to you to gently correct any misinformation your child may have learned. And always answer questions honestly without relying on euphemisms or overdramatizing anything.

It can be tough to step outside the protective parent role, but try to avoid getting too emotional or preachy. You want your child to know you're there to support and help, not condemn.

Finding Reliable Information

Communicating with your teen may not be simple, but it's necessary. If you're always available to talk, discussions will come easier. Literature from your doctor's office or organizations like Planned Parenthood can answer questions for both you and your child.

And websites like this one (especially the section for teens at www.teenshealth.com), as well as those listed on the Additional Resources tab, discuss STDs and sex in a teen-friendly format. Viewing them together can help you and your child start talking.

You can also turn to your child's school for information. Find out when sexuality will be covered in health or science class and read the texts that will be taught. The parent-teacher association at your child's school may even offer sessions about talking to teens where you can share tips and experiences with other parents.

And don't shy away from discussing STDs or sex out of fear that talking about it will make your teen want to have sex. Informed teens are not more likely to have sex, but they are more likely to practice safe sex.

If you try these tactics and still don't feel comfortable talking to your child about STDs, make sure he or she talks to someone: a doctor, counselor, teacher, member of the clergy, or another family member.

Kids and teens need to know about STDs, and it's better that they get the facts from someone their parents trust instead of discovering them on their own.

منبع : مایوکلینیک 

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ساعت ۱۱:۱٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٤/۸  کلمات کلیدی:

  قدرت هیچ‌گاه عقب‌نشینی نمی‌کند،

مگر دربرابر قدرتی بزرگ‌تر 

مالکوم ایکس

                                                                                  


 
ساعت ۱٢:٢٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٧/٤/٥  کلمات کلیدی: talking about sex ، sex education

Sex education: Talking to your teen about sex

You understand the importance of sex education. But don't count on classroom instruction alone. Although the basics may be covered in health class, your child might not hear - or understand - everything he or she needs to know. That's where you come in. Awkward as it may be, sex education is a parent's responsibility. By reinforcing and supplementing what your child learns in school, you can help your child make good decisions about sex.

Breaking the ice

Sex is a staple of news, entertainment and advertising. It's often hard to avoid this ever-present topic. But when parents and children need to talk, it isn't always so easy. If you wait for the perfect moment, you might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started - and keep the discussion going.

  • Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it as a springboard for discussion. If a good topic comes up at an inconvenient time, say you'd like to talk more about it later - then actually do so.
  • Keep it low-key. Don't pressure your child to talk about sex. Simply broach the subject when you're alone with your child. Sometimes everyday moments - such as riding in the car, putting away groceries or sharing a late-night snack - offer the best opportunities to talk.
  • Be honest. If you're uncomfortable, say so - but explain that it's important to keep talking. If you don't know how to answer your child's questions, offer to find the answers or look them up together.
  • Be direct. Clearly state your feelings about specific issues, such as oral sex and intercourse. Present the risks objectively, including emotional pain, sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. Explain that oral sex isn't a risk-free alternative to intercourse.
  • Consider your child's point of view. Don't lecture your child or rely on scare tactics to discourage sexual activity. Instead, listen carefully. Understand your child's pressures, challenges and concerns.
  • Move beyond the facts. Your child needs accurate information about sex. But it's just as important to talk about feelings, attitudes and values. Examine questions of ethics and responsibility in the context of your personal or religious beliefs.
  • Invite more discussion. Let your child know that it's OK to talk with you about sex whenever he or she has questions or concerns. Reward questions by saying, "I'm glad you came to me."

Addressing tough topics

Sex education includes abstinence, date rape, homosexuality and other tough topics. Be prepared for questions like these:

  • How will I know I'm ready for sex? Various factors - peer pressure, curiosity and loneliness, to name a few - steer some teenagers into early sexual activity. But there's no rush. Remind your child that it's OK to wait. Sex is an adult behavior. In the meantime, there are many other ways to express affection - intimate talks, long walks, holding hands, listening to music, dancing, kissing, touching and hugging.
  • What if my boyfriend or girlfriend wants to have sex, but I don't? Explain that no one should have sex out of a sense of obligation or fear. Any form of forced sex is rape, whether the perpetrator is a stranger or someone your child has been dating. Impress upon your child that no always means no. Emphasize that alcohol and drugs impair judgment and reduce inhibitions, leading to situations in which date rape is more likely to occur.
  • What if I think I'm gay? Many teens wonder at some point whether they're gay or bisexual. Help your child understand that he or she is just beginning to explore sexual attraction. These feelings may change as time goes on. Above all, however, let your child know that you love him or her unconditionally. Praise your child for sharing his or her feelings.

Responding to behavior

If your child becomes sexually active - whether you think he or she is ready or not - it may be more important than ever to keep the conversation going. State your feelings and calmly explain your objections. You might say, "I'm disappointed in your decision to have sex. I don't think it's appropriate or healthy for you to have sex right now. But the decision is yours. I expect you to take the associated responsibilities seriously."

Stress the importance of safe sex, and make sure your child understands how to use contraception. You might talk about keeping a sexual relationship exclusive, not only as a matter of trust and respect but also to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Also set and enforce reasonable boundaries, such as curfews and rules about visits from friends of the opposite sex.

Your child's doctor can help, too. A routine checkup can give your child the opportunity to address sexual activity and other behaviors in a supportive, confidential atmosphere.

Looking ahead

With your support, your child can emerge into a sexually responsible adult. Be honest and speak

from the heart. Even if your child remains silent, he or she will hear you

 

منبع : مایوکلینیک 

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